The chosen One
Because I BELIEVE, ONE Man Can Change The World.

Something For Us, For The Weekend!

Friday, October 30, 2009
Something for us during the weekend. Have a nice weekend friends.

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Mount Everest

Thursday, October 29, 2009

•Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain in the world at 8848 meters and 29,028 feet.

•Mt. Everest is named after Sir George Everest. He was a British military engineer who served as a surveyor general of India from 1829 to 1843. During this time he surveyed the peak. Sir George Everest was the 1st person to record the location and height of Mt. Everest which at that time was called Peak XV.

•Most people in Nepal call Mt. Everest, Sagarmtha, meaning forehead in the sky. Speakers of the Tibetan language call Mt.Everest Chomolungma. The translation is "goddess, mother of the world."

•Mt. Everest is covered in glaciers. Glaciers descend from the main peak to nearby satellite peaks. Glaciers are permanently frozen snow and ice.

•The youngest person ever to climb Mt. Everest was a 16 year old from Nepal named Shambu Tamang. He did this on May 5, 1973.

•The first woman ever to climb Mt. Everest was Junko Tabei of Japan. She reached the summit on May 16, 1973.

•The oldest person ever to climb Everest was Ramon Blanco of Spain. He was 60 years and 160 days old. He reached the summit on October 7, 1993.

•The first married couple ever to climb Mt. Everest was Andrej and Mariga Stremfelj from Slovenia. They reached the summit on October 7, 1990.

•Mt. Everest is a religious symbol to the Buddhists.

• It has been said that someone once climbed Mt. Everest without any pants! We don't know if that one is true but it is certainly strange!

New items:

6/1/99 From Brett: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine might have climbed Mt. Everest first! They have found George Mallory's body. They think he was climbing at night because he didn't have his sunglasses on! If they did climb Everest it would have been 29 years before Tenzing Norgay and Sir Edmund Hillary.

11/3/99 From Joan Galbany: Mount Everest is said to be the most dirty mountain in the world. This is because every single expedition was leaving there all their trash such as oxygen bottles, plastic, papers,... Recently, an expedition went there for the only reason to clean the mountain as much as possible. In my opinion, keeping Everest as virgin as it was shold be more important than reaching the summit.

Strange But True

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5 Year Old Romanian Body Builder!

Wednesday, October 28, 2009
Watch this guys!

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Mount Kinabalu: Sabah's Pride!

Wednesday, October 28, 2009
The mysterious mountain
Rising at 4,095m (13,436ft), Mt Kinabalu is the highest mountain between the Himalayas and New Guinea. The mountain is located on the east Malaysian state of Sabah, on the island of Borneo. Mysterious and moody, but always a magnificent sight, Mt Kinabalu has captured the imagination of locals and explorers for centuries. Cloaked in swirling mists, puffy clouds, golden sunsets and rich flora and fauna, the mountain is ever-changing in its sights and sounds.

Mt Kinabalu and its surrounding Park has a very wide range of habitats, from rich tropical lowland and hill rainforest to tropical mountain forest, sub-alpine forest and heath on the higher elevations. In 2000, Mt Kinabalu was included in UNESCO’s World Heritage List to preserve and protect its natural heritage. It has also been designated as a Centre of Plant Diversity for Southeast Asia.

Kinabalu’s name is a mystery. The most popular view derives it from the Kadazan words, Aki Nabalu, meaning ‘the revered place of the dead’. The local Kadazan people believe that spirits dwell on the mountain top. According to another folklore, the name Kinabalu actually means Cina Balu which translates into ‘Chinese widow’. Legend goes that a Chinese prince ascended the mountain in search of a huge pearl guarded by a ferocious dragon. After his successful conquest, he married a Kadazan woman. But he soon abandoned her and returned to China. Heartbroken, his wife wandered to the mountains to mourn. There, she turned into stone.

Early climbers
As there is no record of local people climbing Mt Kinabalu, the first honor goes to Sir Hugh Low, a British colonial officer from Labuan, who reached the summit plateau in 1851. However, he did not scale the highest peak, believing that “the highest point is inaccessible to any but winged animals” In honor of his journey, a peak, along with a mile-deep gully, a pitcher plant and a rhododendron were named after him.

The custom of leaving a signed and dated letter in a bottle at the top of the mountain gives a history of the early climbers. In 1858, Sir Hugh Low made a second expedition to Kinabalu with his friend Spencer St John. The highest peak was finally conquered by John Whitehead and his intrepid Kadazan porters in 1888. Whitehead also made the first zoological collection of the mountain’s animals.

In 1910, English botanist Lilian Gibbs became the first woman to scale Kinabalu. Along the way, she collected over a thousand botanical specimens for the British Museum. In the same year, Mt Kinabalu’s first tourist made the ascent, describing the trip as “purely a vacational ramble”.

Many of the mountain’s early explorers reported that their Kadazan guides performed religious ceremonies upon reaching the summit. Low wrote that his guide carried an assortment of charms, pieces of wood, human teeth and other paraphernalia weighing three kilograms up to the summit. Whitehead recorded the slaughter of one white chicken. These ceremonies were performed to appease the spirits of the mountain. Today, the ceremony is still conducted annually by the Park’s Kadazan guides. Seven chickens and eggs as well as cigars, betel nuts, sirrih leaves, lime and rice are sacrificed and later enjoyed by the guides.

The local people
The Kadazan people - Sabah’s largest indigeneous community - still live on Mt Kinabalu’s flanks. Traditionally, they practiced shifting cultivation, chopping down forest to plant rice and other vegetables. Gradually, permanent terraced farm plots are replacing shifting agriculture to help slow soil erosion and preserve the natural forest. Many Kadazans now work as rangers and guides for Kinabalu Park.


Sabah Tourism

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Amazing Trees!

Tuesday, October 27, 2009
I have no idea whether these tress were purposely 'made' or 'designed' OR 'naturally weird' but still, I say it's really an eye catching things to be seen. Enjoy the photos.

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Nokia sued Apple?

Monday, October 26, 2009
Jeremy Kessel
Sunday, October 25, 2009; 4:15 PM

Disclaimer: Jeremy Kessel has a J.D., but is still waiting for his (July 2009) California Bar Exam results. Thus, he is not (yet) a licensed attorney. Barry L. Cohen, who also shares some insights below, is a licensed attorney. Regardless, this post is not meant as legal advice or analysis and should not be construed as such.As many of you are aware, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple last week in the Federal District Court in Delaware. Nokia's complaint alleges that Apple has infringed on 10 of Nokia's patents for various, "fundamental" GSM, UMTS and wireless LAN (WLAN) technologies. In particular, the patents cover wireless data, speech coding, security and encryption. Nokia believes that all 10 patents have been infringed by all Apple iPhone models shipped since the iPhone was introduced back in 2007.

Anakjagung : I don't know. I mean I have been a fan of Nokia since my 3rd hp... Haven't tried any Apple product yet but I think iPhone is a cool gadget.


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Chihuahua Born with Love-heart Pattern

Monday, October 26, 2009

Okay, I know this is kind of late to talk about this. It happened 3 years ago. A Chihuahua puppy was born in Japan with a natural heart shaped pattern on his coat and this has captured the hearts of animal lovers around the world. Believe me, it's true.

Heart-kun, as he has been named by owner Emiko Sakurada, was born on May 18, 2007, one of a litter of puppies at the Pucchin Dogs shop.

His natural heart-shaped markings on his fur have made him an instant star in Japan. And it was a case of puppy love across the world as the tiny dog made television appearances worldwide.

Shop owner Ms Sakurada got the surprise of her life when she saw the birthmark heart markings in the fur of her tiny pooch.

She said it was the first time a puppy with these marks had been born out of the 1,000 animals that she has bred.

Since Heart-kun was born, he has brought a lot of luck, according to Ms Sakurada. Her sister got lucky on the lottery and won a concert ticket.

Heart-kun's owner has been inundated with requests from people wanting to purchase the unique puppy. But they can keep their paws off him, she says, for her little four-legged friend ain't going nowhere! I wonder how he is now, after 3 years...


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The Match Tonight!

Sunday, October 25, 2009

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Broadband users relieved over RM500 tax relief

Sunday, October 25, 2009

BROADBAND Internet users are relieved with the RM500 tax relief granted to them, but they want the Government to go one step further – and compel the service providers to improve the quality of service.

Random interviews conducted by Star In.Tech revealed that most agreed that the tax relief would help boost the national broadband penetration rate.

But they feared that service quality might suffer with a sudden surge in subscribers.

“I am overjoyed that the Government is going to subsidise my broadband service,” said a housewife who asked to be identified only as Adelina.

“But if my Internet speed is going to stay put as it is now, I think the Government won’t be getting its money’s worth.

“It would be a waste of public funds,” she said.

A media relations executive, who wanted to be known as Belinda, wanted the Government to spend more to get Internet service providers (ISPs) to improve broadband speed.

“If broadband quality goes up markedly, people will be queing up to subscribe to the service,” she said.

“There would then be no need to dangle tax relief as a carrot, she added.

Actor Fish Fazil hoped that any increase in broadband service subscribers would spur ISPs to improve services and infrastructure.

“Broadband is becoming an essential utility now, like electricity and water,” he added.

The broadband tax relief incentive will be implemented from January 2010 to 2012. The current broadband penetration rate in Malaysian households is 26%, against 88% in Singapore and 95% in South Korea.


The Star

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National Scholarship for 30 of the Country's Best Student?

Saturday, October 24, 2009
THIRTY of the country’s creme de la creme students will be awarded National Scholarships strictly based on merit, which will allow them to further their education in world-renowned universities.

Those who get National Higher Education Fund Corporation loans will also see the loans being converted to scholarships beginning next year — if they graduate with first class honours.

All university students will be offered a netbook package of RM50 per month for two years, including free broadband service.

There are goodies for schoolchildren. A complimentary student discount card will be given by Keretapi Tanah Melayu Berhad for long-distance services. Pre-school education — to receive RM48mil — will be incorporated into the mainstream national education system, aimed at increasing children’s participation from 67% to 87% by 2012.

The Permata Programme will get RM100mil to expand and implement five programmes, including early childcare and education for children under five, training those talented in performing arts and guiding exceptionally intelligent students. It will also have a programme to train youths aged between 18 and 25 years to discourage them from getting involved in social ills.

Twenty high performance schools will be identified next year to produce excellent students, focusing, among others, on academic excellence, overall students’ achievements and curriculum activities.

To enhance the skills of the local workforce, RM2bil will be put aside to upgrade polytechnics and community colleges, provide a RM1.3bil loan fund for 32,000 students, and to build and maintain equipment at various industrial training and skills institutes.

The Sijil Kemahiran Malaysia at level four and above will also be accredited as being equivalent to the academic stream, making the holders eligible for employment in the public sector and salaries equivalent to diploma holders.

Additionally, RM32mil will be used for special modules, student screening and training programmes to increase literacy and numeracy to 100% among Year One pupils.

The Government will also ensure that schools are managed and administered professionally by principals and head teachers.

For excellence schools, it will introduce the New Deal package, whereby rewards in the form of monetary and non-monetary incentives and autonomy in administration will be accorded.

In tertiary education, public higher education institutions will be granted greater autonomy. The Government will also consider relaxing rules and regulations, which has hindered these institutions from generating their own income and thus reducing their financial dependence.


The Star

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Hari Dalam Bahasa KadazanDusun

Wednesday, October 21, 2009

Esok saya share pula bulan-bulan dalam Bahasa KadazanDusun pula... Syiook ni... Hehehe

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Let these strips say my mind today!

Monday, October 19, 2009

It just goes beyond saying. Some people were born with it and some, I am sorry - they just never learn. Have a nice life people... Ahaks...
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The Power Of Kisses

Sunday, October 18, 2009
Has it been a while since you had a good smooch? One of the most sensual acts we have is the kiss. But a lot of couples take kissing for granted once they've been together a while. They move on to sex as the main event. Or worse, couples stop kissing in their daily life because their connection and attraction to each other has dwindled.

Kissing is a highly erotic act -- and none of us should forget it. A kiss is the beginning of everything, from a new relationship to some of our earliest memories as sexual beings. Remember how much a kiss could mean when you were younger? Or how intense that first kiss is with someone new? All couples must remember to pucker up and lay a good one on each other at least once a day, at the very least.

A kiss can create some anticipation for later, but that shouldn't always be the purpose. Rather, it's a great way to stay connected to each other in the way that is uniquely yours. Give your partner a kiss as you make dinner or when you're zooming by each other in the morning, trying to get everyone ready. And try for one long, wet 10-second kiss each day in addition to the passing pecks.Of course, a kiss is only good if it's done right. Some couples still haven't worked out their kissing likes and dislikes. Whether starting with a nibble or ending with a deep one, a kiss no different from any other part of sex: the only way you're going figure it out is by doing it! Try taking turns to show each other how you like to be kissed. Put some erotic energy back into the kiss!

Do not be embarrass to talk to close friends on how to improve your kissing skill but surely I don't blame you if you are. On the fact of that matter, here's a good link if you want to learn more on how to be a good kisser. It's good to always try to improve.


Yahoo Health

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The Lost Symbol - Dan Brown

Friday, October 16, 2009

Switching to reading mode.

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New Moon - The Twilight Saga

Thursday, October 15, 2009

A few weeks ago, I wrote "reading New Moon by Stephanie Meyer" in my Facebook profile and the comments were overwhelming. But one comment really open my eyes. It goes like this ..."you are the only guy I know reading the Twilight Saga.."

Okay, I have nothing against that comment, neither do I mind about it. I love reading books and I believe that it matters not what kind of book you are reading as long as you are conscious about it and know 'your ground'. I am aware that this book is clearly 'talks' towards the female readers, but when you like reading, you read what you like.

And browsing youtube just now, I came across this. A beautiful song which suited New Moon perfectly. It is not the official soundtrack of course but having read the novel, I know it's very appropriate for the book. So sit down and enjoy. Love the lyric so much..

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Never Give Up!

Wednesday, October 14, 2009

I just want to share something that will make you say, "I will be stronger and obstacles are just the very reason why I should endure the world!"
And then, be thankful.

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Honk! If you're Malaysian - Lydia Teh

Tuesday, October 13, 2009

In this collection of anecdotes, Lydia brings on more trenchant observations that capture the variegated textures, humour and nuances of Malaysian life. She presents the Malaysian panorama in her own special style, characterized by frankness, vitality and humour.

Her book spans an enormous range of topics from the etiquette of public kissing and how to decimate the lizard population to decorating tips for your car interior and how to make records of the biggest, longest variety.

If you''re Malaysian, you will be delighted to recognize yourself within the pages. If you''re not, you''ll be well on your way to becoming one after reading it.

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Stress Management - Part 1

Monday, October 12, 2009
Stress is inevitable. It comes in so many ways, sometimes we are not even aware of it. In this entry, I will discuss upon how we can manage or control the stress that we face in our everyday's life. This is part 1, maybe, not chronologically correct but I was force by a friend to post this entry, leaving aside the introduction of the actual writing. So, take time to read this and who knows, we can learn something.

How to manage stress

i. Get enough exercise – Perspiring/sweating is an effective anti-anxiety treatment to lift up mood, increase energy while sharpening one’s focus as well as relaxing the mind and body. It also allows good sleep which is very important as it will help us regain our energy loss.

ii. Balance eating – Too much of anything is not good. Therefore, balance diet is important to maintain even blood pressure. This is because, we are what we eat. When we eat too much fat, it will increase the tendency of us being sleepy and tired.

iii. Plan, organize and reflect – These are important so that we can always see the problem that we faced and towards that, we can find better solutions to improve the way we work, be it as an employer or employee.

iv. Not over commit ourselves too high – Some of us might be workaholics. It helps us to get inspired but life is not only about working. There’s more to it. Often, people who are workaholic tend to be very rigid and monotonous. When they failed to achieve what they wanted to achieve, then that‘s when they world crumbled apart. Do things one step at a time and do not try to control everything.

v. MANAGE OURSELVES – we often heard that we need to manage our time wisely but how do we achieve that? It’s by managing ourselves. No matter how good our time planning is but because the lack of discipline to fulfil the requirements of the planning, at the end of the day, we are pressured because we did not achieve what we are suppose to do that day. Hence, tomorrow’s work will be doubled up. This will eventually cause stress to us. The key is discipline.

vi. Be flexible – Sometime, things will not be as we wanted it to be. We cannot control everything. For that very reason, we have to be flexible and adaptable to the unexpected. Otherwise, when unplanned things happen, it will cause you just as much stress as trying to solve it out.

vii. A better way – There’s always a better way to work things out. Be it in our working environment, personal and or in any parts of our life. If you need to do more works where long hours are required, find a better way to solve or to least out our burden. Optimize the usage technology around us and stop thinking as if we are the only person in this world who can do the work right. Delegate and outsource the work to people we can work better with. Remember, two heads are better than one.

viii. Stress is from the inside – Remember this. Stress is not about things around you. It’s a choice you made. No matter how tough and complicated things for you, if you choose to stay relax and do things a step after another, you will always feel calm and organized. It is the way you do the work and not the work itself that keeps you stressed and frustrated.

ix. Focus on the positive side – When stress is getting us down, take a moment to reflect on all the things you appreciate in life. Whenever problem occurs, think it as a chance for the betterment of our lives.

x. Make time for fun and relaxation – There’s a time for everything. Go for a jog, pamper yourself by going to spa or massage, work in your garden, listen to music and or simply have a coffee or tea with your friends. Talk about what’s going on with your life and share tips on how to manage life efficiently.

I've found so many informative site about stress management but sometimes the language is too 'medical' or too 'scientific' so I have decided to write in a simpler and easy to understand language. I hope, one way or the other, you guys will find it useful. Do leave your comment. Until then...



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Risiko Pada Usia Muda? - Bahagian III

Sunday, October 11, 2009

- Untuk diabetes jenis pertama

Buat masa ini, tiada penawar khusus yang praktikal untuk diabetes jenis pertama. Faktor punca diabetes jenis ini yang disebabkan kegagalan fungsi sel Beta, islets of Langerhans di dalam pankreas telah mendorong beberapa kajian dalam bagi menggantikan sel-sel tersebut atau menggantikan keseluruhan organ pankreas sebagai satu bentuk rawatan.

Hanya pesakit yang telah menjalani pemindahan (transplan) pankreas (atau pankreas bersama buah pinggang setelah diabetes menyebabkan masalah buah pinggang), dan seterusnya tidak perlu mengambil insulin lagi dianggap sebagai ‘sembuh’ daripada penyakit tersebut.

Transplan pankreas bersama buah pinggang juga dilihat sebagai antara jalan penyelesaian yang mungkin berkesan untuk penyakit ini dengan peningkatan jangka hayat pesakit. Namun, pemindahan organ memerlukan pesakit mengambil ubat anti-penolakan organ transplan, dalam jangka panjang.

Eksperimen pemindahan sel Beta sahaja juga telah dijalankan ke atas tikus dan manusia. Bagaimanapun, kaedah ini masih kurang berkesan berikutan kesukaran mendapatkan tisu penderma dan juga tindak balas penolakan oleh sistem imuniti badan pesakit.

Penyelidikan sel stem dikatakan mungkin menawarkan kaedah rawatan berpotensi dengan membolehkan sel Beta, islets of Langerhans, untuk tumbuh semula dan mengelakkan keperluan ubat anti-penolakan.

- Untuk diabetes jenis kedua

Diabetes jenis ini belum ada penawar yang berkesan sepenuhnya. Namun, sejenis pembedahan pintasan gastrik (perut) baru-baru ini dilihat mampu menormalkan paras glukosa darah dalam 80 hingga 100 peratus kalangan pesakit diabetes yang sangat obes.

Mekanisma yang membawa kepada paras gula darah yang normal ini belum difahami sepenuhnya dan masih lagi dikaji, tetapi kesan tersebut bukan hanya dikaitkan dengan penurunan berat badan berikutan kadar gula darah mula normal sebelum berat badan pesakit menurun. Pendekatan ini juga mungkin menjadi sejenis rawatan untuk pesakit diabetes jenis kedua kelak.

Pembedahan pintasan itu juga didakwa mempunyai manfaat tambahan dengan mengurangkan kadar kematian daripada semua jenis komplikasi diabetes, sehingga 40 peratus di kalangan pesakit yang sangat obes. Sebilangan kecil pesakit dengan berat badan normal atau sederhana obes juga dilaporkan telah berjaya melalui pembedahan serupa.


Akut (boleh berlaku dengan pantas)

- Koma Hiperosmolar bukan ketotik (HNS); keadaan di mana pesakit mempunyai paras gula terlalu tinggi (lebih 16 mmol/L), menyebabkan air ditarik keluar dari sel badan ke dalam salur darah (secara osmosis) dan buah pinggang mula membuang glukosa ke dalam air kencing. Ini akan menyebabkan kehilangan air, yang jika tidak diganti melalui minuman atau melalui suntikan air, akan menyebabkan dehidrasi. Keadaan ini dianggap sebagai satu kecemasan dan penggantian cecair badan perlu dilakukan segera. Simptom rasa letih boleh membawa kepada koma tetapi keadaan ini lebih biasa berlaku dalam kes diabetes jenis kedua berbanding jenis pertama.

* Hypoglisemia; paras gula terlalu rendah dengan simptom berpeluh, menggigil, jantung berdegup kencang, sakit kepala dan boleh menyebabkan pesakit meracau atau pengsan. bagi kes yang teruk, pesakit boleh koma, sawan, mengalami kecederaan otak dan boleh menyebabkan kematian. Terdapat beberapa punca keadaan ini seperti lebihan dos rawatan insulin atau tidak cukup makan. Dalam kebanyakan kes, pesakit boleh dirawat dengan memberi minuman manis atau makanan tetapi bagi kes teruk, suntikan hormon glukagon (menggalakkan pengeluaran glukosa ke dalam salur darah) atau suntikan gula dextrose (satu bentuk glukosa) boleh diberikan.

Kronik (berlaku secara perlahan-lahan)

- Penyakit sistem vaskular; peningkatan tahap glukosa darah yang berpanjangan boleh membawa kepada kerosakan salur-salur darah (angiopati). Ini menyebabkan lapisan sel salur darah menyerap lebih banyak glukosa dari biasa memandangkan sel-sel tersebut tidak bergantung kepada insulin. Peningkatan penyerapan ini membawa kepada penebalan dan juga melemahkan lapisan tisu membran salur darah. Kerosakan salur darah dibahagikan kepada mikro (salur darah kecil) dan makrovaskular (salur darah besar-arteri). Kerosakan salur darah seterusnya membawa kepada;

* Retinopati diabetik; pertumbuhan salur darah baru yang rapuh dan tidak berkualiti pada retina mata. Ini juga boleh membawa kepada pembengkakan makula mata (makular edema) yang seterusnya boleh menyebabkan penglihatan pesakit semakin teruk atau menjadi buta. Masalah ini juga merupakan punca utama kebutaan yang boleh dicegah, di seluruh dunia.

* Neuropati diabetik; kerosakan saraf yang menyebabkan kehilangan deria rasa, bermula pada kaki dan berpotensi merebak ke bahagian saraf lain, termasuk deria rasa pada jari dan tangan. Digabung dengan kerosakan salur darah, keadaan ini boleh membawa kepada ‘kaki buruk’ diabetes. Terdapat juga keadaan dima mana otot menjadi lemah disebabkan komplikasi ini, dikenali sebagai amiotropi diabetik.

* Nefropati diabetik; kerosakan kepada buah pinggang yang boleh membawa kegagalan fungsi renal, akhirnya memerlukan pesakit menjalani dialisis. Diabetes mellitus adalah punca utama kegagalan fungsi buah pinggang di kalangan orang dewasa di negara dunia maju.

* Kardiomiopati diabetik; kerosakan pada jantung yang membawa kepada disfungi diastolik dan seterusnya kegagalan jantung berfungsi.

- Penyakit makrovaskular akan membawa kepada penyakit kardiovaskular di mana kerosakan pantas pada arteri menjadi faktor penyumbang kepada;

* Penyakit arteri koronori – membawa kepada angina atau serangan jantung (myocardial infarction).

* Strok – terutamanya jenis iskemik (pengurangan aliran darah ke bahgian tertentu otak).

* Penyakit vaskular periferal – menyumbang kepada rasa kebas (sakit) berulang-ulang (tempoh singkat) dan juga ‘kaki buruk’.

* Myonekrosis diabetik – kemusnahan otot.

* Kaki buruk diabetes – selalunya berlaku akibat gabungan neuropati (hilang deria rasa kaki) dan kerosakan salur darah. Peningkatan kadar ulser dan jangkitan kulit, dan kadang kala nekrosis atau gangren menyebabkan kerosakan atau kecederaan kaki lebih lambat sembuh. Komplikasi ini adalah punca utama pemotongan (amputasi) kaki bukan akibat trauma di kalangan orang dewasa di negara dunia maju.

Perwarisan genetik

Kedua-dua diabetes jenis pertama dan kedua mempunyai sekurang-kurangnya sebahagian kaitan dengan faktor warisan genetik.

- Diabetes jenis pertama dilihat tercetus akibat jangkitan tertentu (terutamanya dari virus), atau kadang kala oleh tekanan (stres) atau pendedahan persekitaran (bahan kimia atau ubat tertentu). Kaitan genetik dikatakan bersangkut paut dengan kod genetik individu yang membolehkan sistem imuniti badan membezakan sel badan dan sel asing (penceroboh).

Walaupun sesetengah individu mempunyai kelemahan dari segi warisan genetik, diabetes jenis pertama dilihat memerlukan faktor pencetus untuk mula berlaku. Sebilangan kecil penghidap diabetes jenis pertama juga mempunyai gen mutasi yang menyebabkan diabetes pada usia muda.

- Terdapat kaitan faktor genetik yang lebih kuat dengan diabetes jenis kedua. Mereka yang mempunyai saudara terdekat (ibu, bapa, adik-beradik) dengan diabetes jenis kedua mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi menghidapinya kelak. Peratusan risiko juga meningkat dengan bilangan saudara terdekat yang menghidap diabetes jenis ini, dan hampir 100 peratus kesejajaran bagi kembar seiras.

Lebih 25 peratus penghidap diabetes jenis kedua juga mempunyai sejarah keluarga dengan diabetes. Obesiti yang merupakan satu faktor bebas untuk diabetes jenis kedua juga mempunyai kaitan warisan genetik yang kuat.

Antara gen yang dikaitkan dengan diabetes jenis ini termasuk KCNJ11 dan TCF7L2 (transcription factor 7–like 2), which regulates proglucagon gene expression and thus the production of glucagon-like peptide-1

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Risiko Pada Usia Muda? - Bahagian II

Saturday, October 10, 2009

Pertubuhan Kesihatan Sedunia (WHO) pula menganggarkan 171 juta penduduk dunia menghidap diabetes pada tahun 2000, dan jumlah ini dijangka meningkat lebih dua kali ganda menjelang 2030, dengan jumlah terbesar dijangka datang dari benua Asia dan Afrika.

Pakar Kardiologi dan Pengarah Klinikal Perkhidmatan Kecemasan Jantung, Institut Jantung Negara (IJN), Datuk Dr. Azhari Rosman turut menekankan bagaimana peratusan pesakit diabetes di Malaysia telah meningkat mendadak dari 6.3 peratus pada 1980-an dan sekitar lapan peratus pada 1996 kepada 14.9 peratus pada 2006.

“Diabetes sudah lama wujud dan ramai di antara pesakit IJN sendiri menghidapinya. Diabetes merupakan antara faktor risiko kuat untuk pesakit menghidap penyakit koronari kelak.

“Perubahan pada salur darah pesakit juga boleh dikesan seawal 15 tahun sebelum disahkan menghidap diabetes. Ini jauh lebih awal dari apa yang dijangkakan sebelum ini,” katanya.

Menurut beliau, antara masalah utama yang dihadapi di kalangan pesakit diabetes kini adalah keperluan mengambil bermacam jenis ubat setiap hari (untuk diabetes) sedang mereka turut menghidap penyakit lain yang juga memerlukan pengambilan ubat.

Dr. Azhari menegaskan jika sesuatu penyakit melibatkan pembuluh darah, ia akan menyebabkan kerosakan menyeluruh kepada seluruh badan.

“Salur darah terdapat di seluruh badan terutamanya di jantung dan otak yang boleh membawa kepada serangan jantung dan juga strok (bekalan darah ke otak tergendala), dan kalau lebih malang, kedua-duanya sekali.

“Pembedahan atau rawatan angioplasti juga rumit atau mungkin tidak boleh dilakukan jika pembuluh darah rosak teruk atau menjadi sempit akibat diabetes,” ujarnya.

Jelas beliau, memandangkan kerosakan sudah lama berlaku (seawal 15 tahun awal), gejala tertentu mungkin timbul sebelum pesakit dikesan menghidap diabetes.

Tambahnya, mati pucuk menjadi contoh gejala awal diabetes (atau masalah jantung) akibat kerosakan salur darah halus (mirovaskular) di dalam zakar.

Oleh itu, amatlah ditekankan pentingnya usaha pencegahan diabetes, terutamanya pada usia muda, melalui penjagaan gaya hidup sihat atau rawatan tertentu untuk mengelakkan diabetes di samping pemeriksaan kesihatan bagi mengenalpasti mereka yang berisiko menghidap tinggi.

Dr. Azhari turut mendedahkan purata umur serangan jantung di Malaysia kini ialah 57 tahun berbanding 66 tahun di Barat.

“Pesakit serangan jantung paling muda yang pernah dirawat di negara ini berumur hanya 19 tahun.

“Bukannya semua pesakit jantung menghidap diabetes tetapi digalakkan pesakit untuk mengetahui bahawa risiko diabetes boleh membawa kepada komplikasi buah pinggang, mata dan juga serangan jantung,” jelasnya.

Tambahnya, pesakit diabetes yang pernah menjalani pembedahan pintasan jantung juga menghadapi risiko salur darah kembali tersumbat dengan lebih pantas.

Di IJN, kebanyakan kes diabetes melibatkan jenis kedua di mana insulin tidak dihasilkan dengan cukup di dalam badan.

Dr. Azhari menjelaskan, untuk jenis kedua ini, ubat-ubat pil diberikan dahulu bagi mengurangkan tahap gula darah dan juga bebanan keperluan insulin badan.

“Jika gagal dikawal juga, pesakit mungkin perlu mengambil suntikan insulin untuk mengawal paras gula darah.

“Bagi kes teruk, doktor mungkin terus menggunakan suntikan insulin, atau mengikut pandangan doktor bergantung kepada usia dan keperluan individu pesakit,” jelasnya.

Menurut beliau, pesakit juga perlu mengurangkan berat badan, sekurang-kurangnya 10 peratus berat badan asal, atau lebih baik jika mencapai indeks jisim badan (BMI) yang sihat dan mengamalkan gaya hidup sihat.

Mengelakkan komplikasi

Dalam usaha mengawal komplikasi diabetes, terutamanya masalah kardiovaskular, Dr. Azhari memaklumkan kejayaan IJN membentuk klinik diabetes sendiri untuk membantu memberi nasihat dan penerangan kepada pesakit.

“Dikendalikan bersama jururawat dan paramedik terlatih yang bergabung dengan doktor pakar diabetes, ahli farmasi dan pakar pemakanan, klinik ini dapat membantu pesakit dalam penjagaan komplikasi dan suntikan insulin.

“Pengurusan masalah diabetes di klinik ini juga membantu meringankan beban klinik lain di samping memberi ruang untuk pesakit bertanya sebarang keraguan yang tidak sempat dijawab doktor,” ujarnya.

Dr. Azhari menegaskan kawalan diet pemakanan merupakan antara perkara utama dalam mengubah gaya hidup pesakit diabetes tetapi masih diabaikan sesetengah pesakit.

“Selalunya, ramai yang mengambil snek (manis) di antara hidangan utama. Kawalan juga bukan hanya mengelakkan makanan bergula. Karbohidrat adalah antara bentuk gula dan buah tertentu seperti durian juga mengandungi banyak gula,” jelasnya.

Pengambilan buah memang digalakkan untuk kesihatan, tetapi Dr. Azhari menasihatkan pesakit diabetes untuk mengutamakan buah-buahan kurang manis seperti jambu batu atau buah naga.

Dr. Azhari menekankan pentingnya bagi pesakit yang disahkan menghidap diabetes untuk mengawal rapi penyakit tersebut supaya tidak membawa kepada komplikasi lain.

“Pesakit perlu mengawal rapi paras gula darah, tekanan darah dan juga tahap kolesterol melalui pengambilan ubat (atau insulin) dan juga perubahan gaya hidup.

“Bila sudah kena diabetes, pesakit akan hadapi risiko penyakit koronari yang sama tinggi dengan individu yang pernah (sekali) terkena serangan jantung,” tegasnya.

Dr. Azhari menekankan keperluan pesakit diabetes hadir untuk pemeriksaan susulan secara berkala, mengambil ubat mengikut preskripsi doktor dan kerap memeriksa tahap gula darah.

“Ada pesakit yang sudah bertahun-tahun menjalani rawatan dan pemeriksaan susulan tetapi masih tidak tahu atau kurang faham apa penyakit yang dihidapi, mahupun ubat yang sedang diambil. Pemeriksaan darah sepatutnya dimulakan seawal umur 30 tahun dan ditingkatkan menjelang umur 40 tahun,” katanya.

Beliau juga menegaskan perlunya pesakit bertanya kepada doktor yang merawat terlebih dahulu sebelum mengambil sebarang ubat tradisional bagi mengelakkan masalah dalam kawalan diabetes dan mengelakkan komplikasi.

Hari Diabetes Sedunia

Sempena sambutan Hari Diabetes Sedunia 2008 pada 14 November ini (Jumaat), IJN juga akan mengadakan acara sambutan Hari Diabetes seperti tahun-tahun sebelum ini.

Dr. Azhari menyatakan, sambutan hari diabetes penting bagi mengenengahkan penyakit tersebut sebagai satu masalah kesihatan semua peringkat umur masyarakat, termasuk di kalangan pesakit-pesakit IJN sendiri.

“Saya berharap kesatuan dan pihak lain turut mengadakan program serupa bagi meningkatkan kesedaran di kalangan pesakit diabetes, orang ramai dan juga para doktor.

“Pihak kesatuan lain juga diharapkan memainkan peranan masing-masing seperti mana untuk sambutan Hari Hipertensi dan Hari Jantung Sedunia bagi mengurangkan impak penyakit diabetes dan komplikasinya kepada masyarakat setempat,” katanya.

Tegasnya, pencegahan dan pengesanan mereka yang berisiko menjadi keutamaan tetapi jika sudah menghidap diabetes, maka perkara paling penting adalah mengawalnya dengan rapi (tahap gula, tekanan darah dan kolesterol), lebih-lebih lagi jika pesakit mula menghidap diabetes dari usia muda.

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Risiko Pada Usia Muda? Bahagian I

Friday, October 09, 2009
Bayangkan bagaimana hidup anda jika hilang deria penglihatan, menggunakan kerusi roda akibat strok atau gangren kaki (kaki dipotong), dan berisiko tinggi mengalami serangan jantung sedangkan belum lagi mencecah umur 40 tahun.

Itulah apa yang menanti pesakit diabetes mellitus yang tidak atau gagal mengawal penyakitnya, sama ada kerana tidak mengubah gaya hidup, tidak mahu mengambil ubat atau mengambil ubat tradisional sesuka hati. Keadaan diburukkan lagi jika di kalangan mereka ini telah lama menghidap diabetes, sejak dari usia muda lagi.

Diabetes mellitus merupakan satu sindrom masalah metabolisma yang menyebabkan tahap gula di dalam darah yang tinggi (hiperglisemia) sama ada akibat masalah penghasilan (diabetes jenis pertama) atau fungsi (sensitiviti) insulin (diabetes jenis kedua atau diabetes gestasi).

Semua bentuk diabetes kini boleh dirawat sejak insulin berjaya dihasilkan secara komersial pada 1921 tetapi belum ada penawar yang dapat menyembuhkan pesakit sepenuhnya. Masalah paras gula tinggi di dalam darah kini dirawat melalui kombinasi ubat, kawalan pemakanan dan juga dos suntikan insulin. Tapi manakah yang lebih baik, pencegahan atau pengubatan?

Artikel ini akan dipersembahkan dalam tiga entry. Dua bahagian lagi akan menyusul setiap hari.

Sumber >link<

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Rejection is Hard!

Wednesday, October 07, 2009

You commonly face rejection when you ask for a promotion, send off CV's or go for job interviews. Job searching can be a very testing time, but in that arena you probably accept you need to go through some kind of rejection to get the right job. You don't hesitate to send off another CV or go to another interview, if, at first, you don't succeed.

However, it seems to be far harder for us to bounce back and go on another date than it is to book that next interview.We tend to invest more of ourselves emotionally into any dating situation, so you're likely take this type of rejection more personally and feel it more intensely.

Dealing with being rejected

Here are my top tips on how to deal with rejection:

1. Every 'no' that you receive is bringing you closer to the right 'yes' and the right person.

2. Think of a time when you rejected a potential date or relationship - what was going through your mind?

3. Take stock and put things into perspective. Avoid using 'always' or 'never,' when you're talking to yourself about it. For example, 'Men/women always reject me' 'I'll never meet anyone.'

4. Remember that each date or relationship (however short) can teach you something if you're open to it and will lead you closer to the right person.

5. Ensure that you analyse the situation accurately and quickly, and avoid phoning everyone you know to moan and prolong your suffering.

6. Avoid binge eating, drinking, moaning and shopping to get over the rejection. Bingeing brings short-term relief and then makes you feel worse.

7. Instead of bingeing, indulge yourself in a self-esteem ritual such as, connecting with people who value you highly, doing something which you have put off for months, doing something you are afraid of, or doing something which makes you look and feel fabulous.

8. Get back on your bike and on the dating scene!

Put the tips into practice and you might even have fun along the way! I know - handling rejection is not easy - but every now and then, it brings you closer to the right person!

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Do Your Best, God Will Do The Rest...

Wednesday, October 07, 2009
Glitter Words
[ - *Glitter Words*]

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